Declaration of Helsinki
The World Medical Association has developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a
statement of ethical principles to provide guidance to physicians and other participants
in medical research involving human subjects. Medical research involving human
subjects includes research on identifiable human material or identifiable data.
It is the duty of the physician to promote and safeguard the health of the people. The
physician's knowledge and conscience are dedicated to the fulfillment of this duty.
3.在世界醫學會之日內瓦宣言（Declaration of Geneva）中以下列文字規範醫師：
「病患之福祉為首要之考量」，而國際醫療倫理規章（International Code of
The Declaration of Geneva of the World Medical Association binds the physician with
the words, "The health of my patient will be my first consideration," and the
International Code of Medical Ethics declares that, "A physician shall act only in the
patient's interest when providing medical care which might have the effect of
weakening the physical and mental condition of the patient."
Medical progress is based on research which ultimately must rest in part on
experimentation involving human subjects.
In medical research on human subjects, considerations related to the well-being of the
human subject should take precedence over the interests of science and society.
The primary purpose of medical research involving human subjects is to improve
prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and the understanding of the
aetiology and pathogenesis of disease. Even the best proven prophylactic, diagnostic,
and therapeutic methods must continuously
be challenged through research for their
effectiveness, efficiency, accessibility and quality.
In current medical practice and in medical research, most prophylactic, diagnostic and
therapeutic procedures involve risks and burdens.
Medical research is subject to ethical standards that promote respect for all human
beings and protect their health and rights. Some research populations are vulnerable
and need special protection. The particular needs of the economically and medically
disadvantaged must be recognized. Special attention is also required for those who
cannot give or refuse consent for themselves, for those who may be subject to giving
consent under duress, for those who will not benefit personally from the research and
for those for whom the research is combined with care.
Research Investigators should be aware of the ethical, legal and regulatory for research
on human subjects in their own countries as well as applicable international
requirements. No national ethical, legal or regulatory requirement should be allowed
to reduce or eliminateany of the protections for human subjects set forth in this
B、BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR ALL MEDICAL RESEARCH
It is the duty of the physician in medical research to protect the life, health, privacy,
and dignity of the human subject.
Medical research involving human subjects must conform to generally accepted
scientific principles, be based on a thorough knowledge of the scientific literature,
other relevant sources of information, and on adequate laboratory and, where
appropriate, animal experimentation.
Appropriate caution must be exercised in the conduct of research which may affect the
environment, and the welfare of animals used for research must be respected.
The design and performance of each experimental procedure involving human subjects
should be clearly formulated in an experimental protocol. This protocol should be
submitted for consideration, comment, guidance, and where appropriate, approval to a
specially appointed ethical review committee,
which must be independent of the
investigator, the sponsor or any other kind of undue influence. This independent
committee should be in conformity with the laws and regulations of the country in
which the research experiment is performed. The committee has the right to monitor
ongoing trials. The researcher has the obligation to provide monitoring information to
the committee, especially any serious adverse events. The researcher should also
submit to the committee, for review, information regarding funding, sponsors,
institutional affiliations, other potential conflicts of interest and incentives for subjects.
The research protocol should always contain a statement of the ethical considerations
involved and should indicate that there is compliance with the principles nunciated in
Medical research involving human subjects should be conducted only by scientifically
qualified persons and under the supervision of a clinically competent medical person.
The responsibility for the human subject must always rest with a medically qualified
person and never rest on the subject of
the research, even though the subject has given
Every medical research project involving human subjects should be preceded by
careful assessment of predictable risks and burdens in comparison with foreseeable
benefits to the subject or to others. This does not preclude the participation of healthy
volunteers in medical research. The design of all studies should be publicly available.
Physicians should abstain from engaging in research projects involving human subjects
unless they are confident that the risks involved have been adequately assessed and
can be satisfactorily managed. Physicians should cease any investigation if the risks are
found to outweigh the potential benefits or if there is conclusive proof of positive and
Medical research involving human subjects should only be conducted if the
importance of the objective outweighs the inherent risks and burdens to the subject.
This is especially important when the human subjects are healthy volunteers.
Medical research is only justified if there is a reasonable likelihood that the populations
in which the research is carried out stand to benefit from the results of the research.
The subjects must be volunteers and informed participants in the research project.
The right of research subjects to safeguard their integrity must always be respected.
Every precaution should be taken to respect the privacy of the subject, the
confidentiality of the patient's information and to minimize the impact of the study on
the subject's physical and mental integrity and on the personality of the subject.
In any research on human beings, each potential subject must be adequately informed
of the aims, methods, sources of funding, any possible conflicts of interest,
institutional affiliations of the researcher, the anticipated benefits and potential risks of
the study and the discomfort it may entail. The subject should be informed of the right
to abstain from participation in the study or to withdraw consent to participate at any
time without reprisal. After ensuring that the subject has understood the information,
the physician should then obtain the
subject's freely-given informed consent,
preferably in writing. If the consent cannot be obtained in writing, the non-written
consent must be formally documented and witnessed.
When obtaining informed consent for the research project the physician should be
particularly cautious if the subject is in a dependent relationship with the physician or
may consent under duress. In that case the informed consent should be obtained by a
well-informed physician who is not engaged in the investigation and who is completely
independent of this relationship.
For a research subject who is legally incompetent, physically or mentally incapable of
giving consent or is a legally incompetent minor, the investigator must obtain informed
consent from the legally authorized representative in accordance with applicable law.
These groups should not be included in research unless the research is necessary to
promote the health of the population represented and this research cannot instead be
performed on legally competent persons.
When a subject deemed legally incompetent, such as a minor child, is able to give
assent to decisions about participation in research, the investigator must obtain that
assent in addition to the consent of the legally authorized 6 representative.
Research on individuals from whom it is not possible to obtain consent, including
proxy or advance consent, should be done only if the physical/mental condition that
prevents obtaining informed consent is a necessary characteristic of the research
population. The specific reasons for involving research subjects with a condition that
renders them unable to give informed consent should be stated in the experimental
protocol for consideration and approval of the review committee. The protocol should
state that consent to remain in the research should be obtained as soon as possible from
the individual or a legally authorized surrogate.
Both authors and publishers have ethical obligations. In publication of the results of
research, the investigators are obliged to preserve the accuracy of the results. Negative
as well as positive results should be published or otherwise publicly available. Sources
of funding, institutional affiliations and any possible conflicts of interest should be
declared in the publication. Reports of experimentation not in accordance with the
principles laid down in this Declaration should not be accepted for publication.
C、ADDITIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH COMBINED WITH
The physician may combine medical research with medical care, only to the extent
that the research is justified by its potential prophylactic, diagnostic or therapeutic
value. When medical research is combined with medical care, additional standards
apply to protect the patients who are research subjects.
The benefits, risks, burdens and effectiveness of a new method should be tested against
those of the best current prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic methods. This does
not exclude the use of placebo, or no treatment, in studies where no proven
prophylactic, diagnostic or therapeutic method exists.
The benefits, risks, burdens and effectiveness of a new method should be tested against
tAt the conclusion of the study, every patient entered into the study should be assured
of access to the best proven prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic methods
identified by the study.
The physician should fully inform the patient which aspects of the care are related to
the research. The refusal of a patient to participate in a study must never interfere with
the patient-physician relationship.
In the treatment of a patient, where proven prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic
methods do not exist or have been ineffective, the physician, with informed consent
from the patient, must be free to use unproven or new prophylactic, diagnostic and
therapeutic measures, if in the physician's
judgement it offers hope of saving life, re-
establishing health or alleviating suffering. Where possible, these measures should be
made the object of research, designed to evaluate their safety and efficacy. In all cases,
new information should be recorded and, where appropriate, published. The other
relevant guidelines of this Declaration should be followed.